Dwarfismalso known as short statureoccurs when an organism is extremely small. In cases of proportionate dwarfism, both the limbs and torso are unusually small. Normal intelligence
Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis lifespan are usual. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Those with bone growth disorders can sometimes be treated with surgery, or physical therapy. Hormone disorders can also be treated with hormone replacement therapy before the child's growth plates fuse.
Individual accommodations, such as specialized furniture, are often used by people with dwarfism. In addition to the medical aspect of the condition, there are also social aspects. For a person with dwarfism, height discrimination can lead to ridicule in childhood and discrimination in adulthood. A characteristic of dwarfism is an adult height less than the 2.
There is a wide range of physical Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis. Variations in individuals are identified by diagnosing and monitoring the underlying disorders. There may not be any complications outside adapting to their size. Short stature is a common replacement of the term 'dwarfism', especially in a medical context.
Short stature is clinically defined as a height within the lowest 2. However, those with mild skeletal dysplasias may not be affected by dwarfism.
In some cases of untreated hypochondroplasiamales grow up to 5 feet 5 inches.
Though that is short in a relative context, it does not fall into the extreme ranges of the growth charts. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by shortened limbs or a shortened torso. In achondroplasia one has an average-sized trunk with short limbs and a larger forehead. Spinal stenosisear infection, and hydrocephalus are common.
In case of spinal dysostosisone has a small trunk, with average-sized limbs. Proportionate dwarfism is marked by a short torso with short limbs,  thus leading to a height that is significantly below average. There may be long periods without any significant growth. Sexual development is often delayed or impaired into adulthood. This dwarfism type is caused by an endocrine disorder and not a skeletal dysplasia.
Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal
Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis alignment, or from nerve compression. Some forms of dwarfism are associated with disordered function of other organs, such as the brain or liversometimes severely enough to be more of an impairment than the unusual bone growth.
Mental effects also vary according to the specific underlying syndrome. In most cases of skeletal dysplasia, such as achondroplasia, mental function is not impaired. Unless the brain is directly affected by the underlying disorder, there is little to no chance of mental impairment that can be attributed to dwarfism. The psycho-social limitations of society may be more disabling than the physical symptoms, especially in childhood and adolescence, but people with dwarfism vary greatly in the degree to which social participation and emotional health are affected.
Dwarfism can result from many medical conditions, each with its own separate symptoms and causes. Extreme shortness in humans with proportional body parts usually has a hormonal cause, such as growth-hormone deficiencyonce called pituitary dwarfism. It produces rhizomelic short limbs, increased spinal curvature, and distortion of skull growth.
In achondroplasia the body's limbs are proportionately shorter than the trunk abdominal areawith a larger head than average and characteristic facial features. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the presence of a faulty allele in the genome.
If a pair of achondroplasia alleles are present, the result is fatal. Achondroplasia is a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Research by urologist Harry Fisch of the Male Reproductive Center at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis that in humans this defect may be exclusively inherited from the father and becomes increasingly probable with paternal age: Growth hormone deficiency GHD is a medical condition in which the body produces insufficient growth Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis. Growth hormone, also called somatotropinis a polypeptide hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction.
If this hormone is lacking, stunted or halted growth may become apparent. Children with this disorder may grow slowly and puberty may be delayed by several years or indefinitely.
Growth hormone deficiency has no single definite cause. It can be caused by mutations of specific genes, damage to the pituitary gland, Turner's syndromepoor nutrition,  or even stress leading to psychogenic dwarfism. Laron syndrome growth hormone insensitivity is another cause. Those with growth hormone issues tend to be proportionate. Other causes of dwarfism are spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenitadiastrophic dysplasiapseudoachondroplasiahypochondroplasiaNoonan syndromeprimordial dwarfismTurner syndromeosteogenesis imperfecta OIand hypothyroidism.
Severe shortness with skeletal distortion also occurs in several of the Mucopolysaccharidoses and other storage disorders.
Serious chronic illnesses may produce dwarfism as a side effect.
Harsh environmental conditions, such as malnutrition, may also produce dwarfism. These types of dwarfism are indirect consequences of the generally unhealthy or malnourished condition of the individual, and not of any specific disease. The dwarfism often takes the form of simple short stature, without any deformities, thus leading to proportionate dwarfism. In societies where poor nutrition is widespread, the average height of the population may be Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis below its genetic potential by the lack of proper nutrition.
Sometimes there is no definitive cause of short stature. Dwarfism is often diagnosed in childhood "Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis" the basis of visible symptoms. A physical examination can usually suffice to diagnose certain types of dwarfism, but genetic testing and diagnostic imaging may be used to determine the exact condition. Short stature or stunted growth during youth is usually what brings the condition to medical attention.
Skeletal dysplasia is usually suspected because of obvious physical features e. Most children with suspected skeletal dysplasias are referred to a genetics clinic for diagnostic confirmation and genetic counseling.
Since about the yeargenetic tests for some of the specific disorders have become available.
During an initial medical evaluation of shortness, the absence of disproportion and other clues listed above usually indicates causes other than bone dysplasias. Dwarfism is usually caused by a genetic variant; achondroplasia is caused by a mutation on chromosome 4. If Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis is caused by a medical disorder, the person is referred to by the underlying diagnosed disorder. Disorders causing dwarfism are often classified by proportionality. Disproportionate dwarfism describes disorders that cause unusual proportions of the body parts, while proportionate dwarfism results in a generally uniform stunting of the body.
Disorders that cause dwarfism may be classified according to one of hundreds of names, which are usually permutations of the following roots:. Examples include achondroplasia and chondrodystrophy. Many types of dwarfism currently impossible to prevent because they are genetically caused. Genetic conditions that cause dwarfism may be identified with genetic testingby screening for the specific variations that result in the condition.
However, due to the number of causes of dwarfism, it may be impossible to determine definitively if a child will be born with dwarfism. Dwarfism resulting from malnutrition or a hormonal abnormality may be treated with an appropriate diet or hormonal therapy. Growth hormone deficiency may be remedied via injections of human growth hormone HGH during early life.
Genetic mutations of most forms of dwarfism caused by bone dysplasia cannot be altered yet, so therapeutic interventions are typically aimed at preventing or reducing pain Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis physical disability, increasing adult height, or mitigating psychosocial stresses and enhancing social adaptation.
Forms of dwarfism associated with the endocrine system may be treated using hormonal therapy. If the cause is prepubescent hyposecretion of growth hormone, supplemental growth hormone may correct the abnormality.
If the receptor for growth hormone is itself affected, the condition may prove harder to treat. Hypothyroidism is another possible cause of dwarfism that can be treated through hormonal therapy. Injections of thyroid hormone can mitigate the effects of the condition, but lack of proportion may be permanent.
Pain and disability may be ameliorated by physical therapy, braces or other orthotic devices, or by surgical procedures. Most people with dwarfism do not choose this option, and it remains controversial.
The appropriate term for describing a person of particularly Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis stature or with the genetic condition achondroplasia has historically been ambiguous, and has developed euphemistically over the past centuries. The noun dwarf stems from Old English dweorgoriginally referring to a being from Germanic mythology —a Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis —that dwells in
Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis and in the earth, and is associated with wisdom, smithing, mining, and crafting.
The etymology of the word dwarf is contested, and scholars have proposed varying theories about the origins of the being, including that dwarfs may have originated as nature spirits or as beings associated with death, or as a mixture of concepts.
The being may not have gained associations with small stature until a later period. The terms "dwarf", "little person", "LP", and "person of short stature" are now generally considered acceptable by most people affected by these disorders. Tolkiendescribing a race of characters in his The Lord of the Rings books resembling Norse dwarfs. Barnum 's dwarfs used for public amusement during the freak show era.
Dwarfs are supported to compete in sport by a number of organisations nationally and internationally. For instance, swimming and bicycling are often recommended for people with skeletal dysplasias, since those activities put minimal pressure on the spine.
Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis art, literature, and movies, dwarfs are rarely depicted as ordinary people who are very short but rather as a species apart.
Novelistsartists"Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis" moviemakers may attach special moral or aesthetic significance to their "apartness" or misshapenness. Artistic representations of dwarfism can be found on Greek vases and other ancient artifacts, including ancient Egyptian art in which dwarfs are likely to have been seen as a Dwarf dwarf midget midget sturgis manifestation, with records indicating they could reach high positions in society.
Depictions of dwarfism are also found in European paintings and many illustrations. Many European paintings especially Spanish of the 16th—19th centuries depict dwarfs by themselves or with others. In the Talmudit is said that the second born son of the Egyptian Pharaoh of the Bible was a dwarf. As popular media have become more widespread, the number of works depicting dwarfs have increased dramatically.
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